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Synthetic odorants are produced through organic synthesis and purified. Odorants from natural sources require the use of various methods to extract the aromatics from the raw materials.
The results of the extraction are either essential oils , absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product.
All these techniques will, to a certain extent, distort the odor of the aromatic compounds obtained from the raw materials. This is due to the use of heat, harsh solvents, or through exposure to oxygen in the extraction process which will denature the aromatic compounds, which either change their odor character or renders them odorless.
Although fragrant extracts are known to the general public as the generic term " essential oils ", a more specific language is used in the fragrance industry to describe the source, purity, and technique used to obtain a particular fragrant extract.
Of these extracts, only absolutes , essential oils , and tinctures are directly used to formulate perfumes. Products from different extraction methods are known under different names even though their starting materials are the same.
For instance, orange blossoms from Citrus aurantium that have undergone solvent extraction produces "orange blossom absolute" but that which have been steam distilled is known as "neroli oil".
Perfume compositions are an important part of many industries ranging from the luxury goods sectors, food services industries, to manufacturers of various household chemicals.
As such there is significant interest in producing a perfume formulation that people will find aesthetically pleasing.
The job of composing perfumes that will be sold is left up to an expert on perfume composition or known in the fragrance industry as the perfumer.
They are also sometimes referred to affectionately as a " Nez " French for nose due to their fine sense of smell and skill in smell composition.
The composition of a perfume typically begins with a brief by the perfumer's employer or an outside customer. The customers to the perfumer or their employers, are typically fashion houses or large corporations of various industries.
The perfume composition will then be either used to enhance another product as a functional fragrance shampoos , make-up , detergents , car interiors, etc.
Although there is no single "correct" technique for the formulation of a perfume, there are general guidelines as to how a perfume can be constructed from a concept.
Although many ingredients do not contribute to the smell of a perfume, many perfumes include colorants and anti-oxidants to improve the marketability and shelf life of the perfume, respectively.
Perfume oils usually contain tens to hundreds of ingredients and these are typically organized in a perfume for the specific role they will play.
These ingredients can be roughly grouped into four groups:. The top, middle, and base notes of a fragrance may have separate primary scents and supporting ingredients.
The perfume's fragrance oils are then blended with ethyl alcohol and water, aged in tanks for several weeks and filtered through processing equipment to, respectively, allow the perfume ingredients in the mixture to stabilize and to remove any sediment and particles before the solution can be filled into the perfume bottles.
Instead of building a perfume from "ground up", many modern perfumes and colognes are made using fragrance bases or simply bases.
Each base is essentially modular perfume that is blended from essential oils and aromatic chemicals, and formulated with a simple concept such as "fresh cut grass" or "juicy sour apple".
Many of Guerlain 's Aqua Allegoria line, with their simple fragrance concepts, are good examples of what perfume fragrance bases are like.
The effort used in developing bases by fragrance companies or individual perfumers may equal that of a marketed perfume, since they are useful in that they are reusable.
On top of its reusability, the benefit in using bases for construction are quite numerous:. This is particularly due to the presence of natural essential oils and other ingredients consisting of complex chemical mixtures.
Antique or badly preserved perfumes undergoing this analysis can also be difficult due to the numerous degradation by-products and impurities that may have resulted from breakdown of the odorous compounds.
Ingredients and compounds can usually be ruled out or identified using gas chromatograph GC smellers, which allow individual chemical components to be identified both through their physical properties and their scent.
Reverse engineering of best-selling perfumes in the market is a very common practice in the fragrance industry due to the relative simplicity of operating GC equipment, the pressure to produce marketable fragrances, and the highly lucrative nature of the perfume market.
It is doubtful whether perfumes qualify as appropriate copyright subject matter under the US Copyright Act. The issue has not yet been addressed by any US court.
A perfume's scent is not eligible for trademark protection: the scent serves as the functional purpose of the product.
The French Supreme Court has twice taken the position that perfumes lack the creativity to constitute copyrightable expressions Bsiri-Barbir v.
Senteur Mazal , Live resellers in offline stores in malls, airport shops can offer "fillable" perfumery and tend to claim their perfume has something to do with well-known perfumes in question to the point of claiming "being distributed from same vat", depending on reseller.
Perfume ingredients, regardless of natural or synthetic origins, may all cause health or environmental problems when used.
Although the areas are under active research, much remains to be learned about the effects of fragrance on human health and the environment.
Evidence in peer-reviewed journals shows that some fragrances can cause asthmatic reactions in some individuals, especially those with severe or atopic asthma.
In some cases, an excessive use of perfumes may cause allergic reactions of the skin. For instance, acetophenone , ethyl acetate [ citation needed ] and acetone  while present in many perfumes, are also known or potential respiratory allergens.
Nevertheless, this may be misleading, since the harm presented by many of these chemicals either natural or synthetic is dependent on environmental conditions and their concentrations in a perfume.
For instance, linalool, which is listed as an irritant, causes skin irritation when it degrades to peroxides, however the use of antioxidants in perfumes or reduction in concentrations can prevent this.
As well, the furanocoumarin present in natural extracts of grapefruit or celery can cause severe allergic reactions and increase sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation.
Some research on natural aromatics have shown that many contain compounds that cause skin irritation.
A number of national and international surveys have identified balsam of Peru , often used in perfumes, as being in the "top five" allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.
Balsam of Peru is used as a marker for perfume allergy. There is scientific evidence that nitro-musks such as musk xylene could cause cancer in some specific animal tests.
Although other ingredients such as polycyclic synthetic musks , have been reported to be positive in some in-vitro hormone assays,   these reports have been reviewed by various authorities.
Reviews with similar positive outcomes also exist for another main polycyclic musk AHTN —for instance, on its safe use in cosmetics by the EU.
Many natural aromatics, such as oakmoss absolutes,   basil oil, rose oil and many others contain allergens or carcinogenic compounds, the safety of which is either governed by regulations e.
Synthetic musks are pleasant in smell and relatively inexpensive, as such they are often employed in large quantities to cover the unpleasant scent of laundry detergents and many personal cleaning products.
Due to their large-scale use, several types of synthetic musks have been found in human fat and milk,  as well as in the sediments and waters of the Great Lakes.
These pollutants may pose additional health and environmental problems when they enter human and animal diets. The demands for aromatic materials such as sandalwood, agarwood, and musk have led to the endangerment of these species, as well as illegal trafficking and harvesting.
The perfume industry in the US is not directly regulated by the FDA, instead the FDA controls the safety of perfumes through their ingredients and requires that they be tested to the extent that they are Generally recognized as safe GRAS.
Due to the need for protection of trade secrets, companies rarely give the full listing of ingredients regardless of their effects on health.
In Europe, as from 11 March , the mandatory listing of a set of 26 recognized fragrance allergens was enforced.
The limits above which the allegens are required to be declared are 0. Fragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or break down if improperly stored in the presence of heat , light , oxygen , and extraneous organic materials.
Proper preservation of perfumes involves keeping them away from sources of heat and storing them where they will not be exposed to light.
An opened bottle will keep its aroma intact for several years, as long as it is well stored. Although it is difficult to completely remove oxygen from the headspace of a stored flask of fragrance, opting for spray dispensers instead of rollers and "open" bottles will minimize oxygen exposure.
Sprays also have the advantage of isolating fragrance inside a bottle and preventing it from mixing with dust, skin, and detritus, which would degrade and alter the quality of a perfume.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the fragrant substance. For other uses, see Perfume disambiguation.
Main article: History of perfume. Main article: Note perfumery. Investigation of potential copyright issue.
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Main article: Fragrance wheel. Main article: Aroma compound. Main article: Fragrance extraction. Main article: Perfumer. Further information: List of perfumes and List of celebrity-branded fragrances.
New York: Berkley Books. Brill Archive. Agriculture Diversification: Problems and Perspectives. International Pvt Ltd. Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 21 June Fox News.
Kathimerini English Edition. Retrieved 6 June Wiedemann ; M. So, What's All the Sniff About? So Whats all the Sniff about.
Retrieved 11 July This fragrance was said to have therapeutic properties to aid with headaches and heart palpitations. It was designed as a non-gender aroma that would enhance one's mood.
Archived from the original on 3 February The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July What makes them different — and in many cases, more expensive?
The Fragrance Foundation. Archived from the original on 31 July Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 8 August Nicholson, ASO Complementary Medicine, Beauty and Modelling.
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Retrieved 6 March Bope; Rick D. Kellerman Conn's Current Therapy Expert Consult. Platts-Mills; Johannes Ring Allergy in Practice.
Frosch; Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin Contact Dermatitis. Retrieved 31 December Meine Tochter hat so ein Mabeparfum geschenkt bekommen.
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Und wenn ich jetzt aus Parfümo fliege, nur weil ich mich als Maybe geoutet hab, dann tut mir das auch nicht leid. Ach ja und zur "Unbeliebtheit" kann ich nur sagen, wenn die Düfte nicht eingestellt werden können, kann auch keine Diskussion darüber entstehen.
Ich hab es versucht, noch bevor ich bei der Firma registriert war, es geht nicht! Fsoffice 6 Posts. Fsoffice ws Glamour Hallo Leute, so habe ich mich auch mal angemeldet.
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Ich selbst kenne den Vertrieb von meiner damaligen Studentenverbindung in Düsseldorf. Seit 8 Jahren bin ich nur nebenbei im Vertrieb.
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